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The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyzstan) was proclaimed as an independent state in 1991 after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Now the Kyrgyz Republic is a state with the presidential power. According to the constitution adopted in May 5, 1993, the Kyrgyz Republic is a sovereign, unitary and democratic republic, based on the foundations of a lawful and secular state. The president is the head of the country. He is elected for 5 year period. Askar Akaev was elected as the first president of the republic. He was ruling the country till March 2005.
The second president Kurmanbek Bakiev was elected in 2005. The Government - Jogorku Kenesh is permanent high representative organ. Jogorky Kenesh implements legislature and control functions as well. It is elected for 5 year period by party lists. The high executive organ is the Government with the Prime Minister as a head. The capital of Kyrgyzstan is Bishkek.
Kyrgyzstan's national flag was approved on 3 March 1992 and was solemnly flown for the first time on the top of the House of Government on 5 March. The Kyrgyz flag is red in color with a sun in the center with 40 evenly spread golden rays. Inside the sun, there is a red upper part of the Kyrgyz yurt which is called tunduk. The red color of the flag symbolizes bravery and wealth, whereas the tunduk is a symbol of parental home and the world as the universe in the wider sense. Forty rays united in circle refer to the unification of 40 ancient tribes into one Kyrgyzstan. The tunduk symbolizes the unity of people living in the country. Red was the color of the flag of the benevolent Manas.
The National Emblem
Kyrgyzstan's national emblem was endorsed on 14 January 1994. The Kyrgyz national emblem pictures a mountain eagle, symbolizing generosity and keen eye-sight, and the good intensions of the Kyrgyz. The water surface of a lake symbolizes the beauty of the nature and the source of life and energy.
The som is Kyrgyzstan's national currency. Kyrgyzstan was the first country in the CIS to adopt its own currency. The parliament of the Kyrgyz Republic passed the resolution to adopt the national currency, the som, on 10 may 1993. The following currencies are convertible on the territory of Kyrgyzstan: Euro, US dollars, pounds and also the currencies of neighboring countries.
Kyrgyzstan is a multiethnic country, home to over 90 ethnic groups. As of the early 2007, the country's population stood at 5.19 million people. The largest group is ethnic Kyrgyz (69%). Major diasporas are ethnic Uzbeks, ethnic Kazakhs, Uighurs, Huis, ethnic Russians and Tatars. The national growth of population has picked up in recent years. A third of the population is children and teenagers; 59% are workforce and 8% are people of retirement age. The average age is 27 years.
The state language is Kyrgyz. The official language is Russian. Kyrgyzstan is the only country in Central Asia that granted the status of official language to Russian. Russian has the status of the "language of interethnic communications".